Business Ideas and Methods. (经营理念和方法。)

business process management





Business Ideas And Methods. (经营理念和方法。)






Business Ideas And Methods. (经营理念和方法。)

Business process management (BPM) has been referred to as a “holistic management” approach[1] to aligning an organization’s business processes with the wants and needs of clients. BPM uses a systematic approach in an attempt to continuously improve business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology. It can therefore be described as a “process optimization process.” It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach. [2] These processes can impact the cost and revenue generation of an organization. As a managerial approach, BPM sees processes as strategic assets of an organization that must be understood, managed, and improved to deliver value-added products and services to clients. This foundation closely resembles other Total Quality Management or Continuous Improvement Process methodologies or approaches. BPM goes a step further by stating that this approach can be supported, or enabled, through technology to ensure the viability of the managerial approach in times of stress and change. In fact, BPM offers an approach to integrate an organizational “change capability” that is both human and technological. As such, many BPM articles and pundits often discuss BPM from one of two viewpoints: people and/or technology.

Business Ideas And Methods. (经营理念和方法。)

BPM or Business Process Management is often referred to[by whom?] as ‘Management by Business Processes’. The term “business” can be confusing as it is often linked with a hierarchical view (by function) of a company. It is therefore preferable to define BPM as “corporate management through processes”. By adding BPM the second meaning of ‘Business Performance Management’ used by August-Wilhelm Scheer[3] in his article “Advanced BPM Assessment”,[4] BPM can therefore be defined as “company performance management through processes”. And it’s this resolutely performance-oriented definition which is chosen[by whom?] here. Dominique Thiault, in Managing Performance Through Business Processes,[5] defines BPM as a management-through-processes method which helps to improve the company’s performance in a more and more complex and ever-changing environment. Management through processes is a management method based on two logical levels: process governance and process management:

Business Ideas And Methods. (经营理念和方法。)

Process governance is all of the company’s governance activities which, by way of allocating on the processes, work towards reaching its objectives, which are both operational and progress-related.
Process management is all the management activities of a given process which work towards reaching the objectives allocated for this process.

Business Ideas And Methods. (经营理念和方法。)

business management

Business Ideas And Methods. (经营理念和方法。)

Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.

Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to ‘manage’ oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage others.

business loans

In finance, a loan is a debt evidenced by a note which specifies, among other things, the principal amount, interest rate, and date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset(s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower.

In a loan, the borrower initially receives or borrows an amount of money, called the principal, from the lender, and is obligated to pay back or repay an equal amount of money to the lender at a later time. Typically, the money is paid back in regular installments, or partial repayments; in an annuity, each installment is the same amount.

The loan is generally provided at a cost, referred to as interest on the debt, which provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan. In a legal loan, each of these obligations and restrictions is enforced by contract, which can also place the borrower under additional restrictions known as loan covenants. Although this article focuses on monetary loans, in practice any material object might be lent.

Acting as a provider of loans is one of the principal tasks for financial institutions. For other institutions, issuing of debt contracts such as bonds is a typical source of funding.

Loans can also be subcategorized according to whether the debtor is an individual person (consumer) or a business. Common personal loans include mortgage loans, car loans, home equity lines of credit, credit cards, installment loans and payday loans. The credit score of the borrower is a major component in and underwriting and interest rates (APR) of these loans. The monthly payments of personal loans can be decreased by selecting longer payment terms, but overall interest paid increases as well. For car loans in the U.S., the average term was about 60 months in 2009.[4]

Loans to businesses are similar to the above, but also include commercial mortgages and corporate bonds. Underwriting is not based upon credit score but rather credit rating.

business administration
The administration of a business is interchangeable with the performance or management of business operations, maybe including important decision making. Thus it is likely to include the efficient organization of people and other resources so as to direct activities toward common goals and objectives.

The word is derived from the Middle English word administracioun, which is in turn derived from the French administration, itself derived from the Latin administratio — a compounding of ad (“to”) and ministrare (“give service”).

Administrator can occasionally serve as the title of the general manager or company secretary who reports to a corporate board of directors. This title is archaic, but, in many enterprises, the general management function, including the associated Finance, Personnel and management information systems services, is what is meant by the term “administration”.

In some organizational analyses, management is viewed as a subset of administration, specifically associated with the technical and mundane elements within an organization’s operation. It stands distinct from executive or strategic work.

Alternatively, administration can refer to the bureaucratic or operational performance of routine office tasks, usually internally oriented and reactive rather than proactive.

Administrators, broadly speaking, engage in a common set of functions to meet the organization’s goals. These “functions” of the administrator were described by Henri Fayol as “the 5 elements of administration” (in bold below).

Planning – is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who should do it. It maps the path from where the organization is to where it wants to be. The planning function involves establishing goals and arranging them in a logical order. Administrators engage in both short-range and long-range planning.
Organizing – involves identifying responsibilities to be performed, grouping responsibilities into departments or divisions, and specifying organizational relationships. The purpose is to achieve coordinated effort among all the elements in the organization (Coordinating). Organizing must take into account delegation of authority and responsibility and span of control within supervisory units.
Staffing – means filling job positions with the right people at the right time. It involves determining staffing needs, writing job descriptions, recruiting and screening people to fill the positions.
Directing (Commanding) – is leading people in a manner that achieves the goals of the organization. This involves proper allocation of resources and providing an effective support system. Directing requires exceptional interpersonal skills and the ability to motivate people. One of the crucial issues in directing is to find the correct balance between emphasis on staff needs and emphasis on economic production.
Controlling – is a function that evaluates quality in all areas and detects potential or actual deviations from the organization’s plan. This ensures high-quality performance and satisfactory results while maintaining an orderly and problem-free environment. Controlling includes information management, measurement of performance, and institution of corrective actions.
Budgeting – exempted from the list above, incorporates most of the administrative functions, beginning with the implementation of a budget plan through the application of budget controls…

business school

A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. Such a school can also be known as a business college, college of business, college of business administration, school of business, school of business administration, or, colloquially, b-school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, administration, strategy, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, information systems, marketing, organizational behavior, public relations, and quantitative methods.

business leads

Business networking is a socioeconomic business activity by which groups of like-minded businesspeople recognize, create, or act upon business opportunities. A business network is a type of business social network whose reason for existing is business activity. There are several prominent business networking organizations that create models of business networking activity that, when followed, allow the business person to build new business relationships and generate business opportunities at the same time. A professional network service is an implementation of information technology in support of business networking. Many businesspeople contend business networking is a more cost-effective method of generating new business than advertising or public relations efforts. This is because business networking is a low-cost activity that involves more personal commitment than company money.

As an example, a business network may agree to meet weekly or monthly with the purpose of exchanging business leads and referrals with fellow members. To complement this business activity, members often meet outside this circle, on their own time, and build their own one-to-one business relationship with the fellow member.

Business networking can be conducted in a local business community, or on a larger scale via the Internet. Business networking websites have grown over recent years due to the Internet’s ability to connect business people from all over the world. Internet businesses often set up business leads for sale to bigger corporations and businesses looking for data sources for business.

Business networking can have a meaning also in the ICT domain, i.e. the provision of operating support to businesses and organizations, and related value chains and value networks.

commercial banks and business banking

A commercial bank is a type of bank that provides services, such as accepting deposits, giving business loans and basic investment products.

Commercial bank can also refer to a bank or a division of a bank that mostly deals with deposits and loans from corporations or large businesses, as opposed to individual members of the public (retail banking).

In the US the term commercial bank was often used to distinguish it from an investment bank due to differences in bank regulation. After the great depression, through the Glass–Steagall Act, the U.S. Congress required that commercial banks only engage in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited to capital markets activities. This separation was mostly repealed in the 1990s.

personal and business credit cards

A credit card is a payment card issued to users as a system of payment. It allows the cardholder to pay for goods and services based on the holder’s promise to pay for them.[1] The issuer of the card creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the consumer (or the user) from which the user can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance to the user.

A credit card is different from a charge card: a charge card requires the balance to be paid in full each month.[2] In contrast, credit cards allow the consumers a continuing balance of debt, subject to interest being charged. A credit card also differs from a cash card, which can be used like currency by the owner of the card. A credit card differs from a charge card also in that a credit card typically involves a third-party entity that pays the seller and is reimbursed by the buyer, whereas a charge card simply defers payment by the buyer until a later date.

The size of most credit cards is 3 ⅜ × 2 ⅛ in (85.60 × 53.98 mm),[3] conforming to the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard. Credit cards have an embossed bank card number complying with the ISO/IEC 7812 numbering standard.

business intelligence

Business intelligence (BI) is a set of theories, methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business purposes. BI can handle large amounts of information to help identify and develop new opportunities. Making use of new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.[1]

BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics.

Though the term business intelligence is sometimes a synonym for competitive intelligence (because they both support decision making), BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. If understood broadly, business intelligence can include the subset of competitive intelligence.[2]

business schools and business degrees

A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. Such a school can also be known as a business college, college of business, college of business administration, school of business, school of business administration, or, colloquially, b-school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, administration, strategy, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, information systems, marketing, organizational behavior, public relations, and quantitative methods.

retail banking and business checking account

Retail banking is when a bank executes transactions directly with consumers, rather than corporations or other banks. Services offered include savings and transactional accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit cards, and credit cards. The term is generally used to distinguish these banking services from investment banking, commercial banking or wholesale banking. It may also be used to refer to a division of a bank dealing with retail customers and can also be termed as Personal Banking services.

In the US the term Commercial bank is used for a normal bank to distinguish it from an investment bank. After the great depression, through the Glass–Steagall Act, the U.S. Congress required that banks only engage in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited to capital markets activities. This separation was repealed in the 1990s. Commercial bank can also refer to a bank or a division of a bank that mostly deals with deposits and loans from corporations or large businesses, as opposed to individual members of the public (retail banking).

Masters of business administration degree

The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.), a master’s degree in business administration, attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines. The MBA degree originated in the United States in the late 19th century as the country industrialized and companies sought scientific approaches to management. The core courses in an MBA program introduce the various areas of business such as accounting, finance, marketing, human resources and operations management. Students in MBA programs generally have the option of electing to focus approximately a quarter of their studies on it an area of concentration.

Accreditation bodies specifically for MBA programs ensure consistency and quality of education. Business schools in many countries offer programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive, and distance learning students, with specialized concentrations.

insurance and business liability insurance

Insurance is the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another in exchange for payment. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss.

An insurer, or insurance carrier, is a company selling the insurance; the insured, or policyholder, is the person or entity buying the insurance policy. The amount of money to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage is called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.

The transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer’s promise to compensate (indemnify) the insured in the case of a financial (personal) loss. The insured receives a contract, called the insurance policy, which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated.

business analytics

Business analytics (BA) refers to the skills, technologies, applications and practices for continuous iterative exploration and investigation of past business performance to gain insight and drive business planning.[1] Business analytics focuses on developing new insights and understanding of business performance based on data and statistical methods. In contrast, business intelligence traditionally focuses on using a consistent set of metrics to both measure past performance and guide business planning, which is also based on data and statistical methods.

Business analytics makes extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative analysis, explanatory and predictive modeling,[2] and fact-based management to drive decision making. It is therefore closely related to management science. Analytics may be used as input for human decisions or may drive fully automated decisions. Business intelligence is querying, reporting, OLAP, and “alerts.”

In other words, querying, reporting, OLAP, and alert tools can answer questions such as what happened, how many, how often, where the problem is, and what actions are needed. Business analytics can answer questions like why is this happening, what if these trends continue, what will happen next (that is, predict), what is the best that can happen (that is, optimize).[3]

business continuity plan

Business continuity planning (BCP) “identifies an organization’s exposure to internal and external threats and synthesizes hard and soft assets to provide effective prevention and recovery for the organization, while maintaining competitive advantage and value system integrity”.[1] It is also called business continuity and resiliency planning (BCRP). A business continuity plan is a roadmap for continuing operations under adverse conditions such as a storm or a crime. In the US, governmental entities refer to the process as continuity of operations planning (COOP).

Any event that could impact operations is included, such as supply chain interruption, loss of or damage to critical infrastructure (major machinery or computing/network resource). As such, risk management must be incorporated as part of BCP.[2]

In December 2006, the British Standards Institution (BSI) released an independent standard for BCP — BS 25999-1. Prior to the introduction of BS 25999, BCP professionals relied on information security standard BS 7799, which only peripherally addressed BCP to improve an organization’s information security procedures. BS 25999’s applicability extends to all organizations. In 2007, the BSI published BS 25999-2 “Specification for Business Continuity Management”, which specifies requirements for implementing, operating and improving a documented business continuity management system (BCMS).

Business continuity management is standardised across the UK by British Standards (BS) through BS 25999-2:2007 and BS 25999-1:2006. BS 25999-2:2007 business continuity management is the British Standard for business continuity management across all organizations. This includes industry and its sectors. The standard provides a best practice framework to minimize disruption during unexpected events that could bring business to a standstill. The document gives you a practical plan to deal with most eventualities – from extreme weather conditions to terrorism, IT system failure and staff sickness. (British Standards Institution, 2006) [3]

This document was superseded in November 2012 by the British standard BS ISO22301:2012. (British Standards Institution, 2012) [4]

In 2004, following crises in the preceding years, the UK government passed the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (The Act). This provides the legislation for civil protection in the UK.

The Act was separated into two distinct parts: Part 1 focuses on local arrangements for civil protection, establishing a statutory framework of roles and responsibilities for local responders. Part 2 focused on emergency powers, establishing a modern framework for the use of special legislative measures that might be necessary to deal with the effects of the most serious emergencies.

The Act is telling responders and planners that businesses need to have continuity planning measures in place in order to survive and continue to thrive whilst working towards keeping the incident as minimal as possible. (Cabinet Office, 2004)[5]

business intelligence tools and business intelligence software

Business intelligence tools are a type of application software designed to retrieve, analyze and report data for business intelligence. The tools generally read data that have been previously stored, often, though not necessarily, in a data warehouse or data mart.

business credit report

Business Credit Reports are considered an insightful, accurate, historical and enlightened information source for companies and individuals that are seeking to initiate a business credit relationship with other businesses.

There are many credit management companies that specialize in business credit reports. These credit management companies are in the business of gathering the most predictive information on individuals and companies beforehand in order to assure that a company that has an interest in providing credit to another company or individual will have less worries on whether or not they will get paid and will not have to concern themselves with the risk associated with not knowing the borrowers history. Other uses of this report is to assess risk in extending loans to businesses, insuring businesses, underwriting insurance risk, purchasing businesses, investing in businesses or even company directors.

Credit management companies that specialize in offering business credit reports typically provide the most up to date information about business credit that’s available today, saving time, money and ensuring a completely sound and informed credit decision. This is in addition to companies who also provide consumer reports

Some notable business credit reporting companies are http://www.businesscreditreports.com/Dun & Bradstreet,[1] [2]Creditsafe Group,[3] National Association of Credit Management, and Southeastern Association of Credit Management.

business phone numbers are usually either listed in the phone book, online in the contact us page of a web-site, or other published references, available through local libraries.

performance management
Performance management (PM) includes activities which ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department, employee, or even the processes to build a product of service, as well as many other areas.

PM is also known as a process by which organizations align their resources, systems and employees to strategic objectives and priorities.

Performance management as referenced on this page in a broad term coined by Dr. Aubrey Daniels in the late 1970s to describe a technology (i.e. science imbedded in applications methods) for managing both behavior and results, two critical elements of what is known as performance.

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